Srila-Saraswati-Thakur-two

The Six Qualities

Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s commentary on the third verse of Śrī Upadeśāmṛta.

The following is a translation of Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s poetic Bengali translation, Bhāṣā, and Bengali prose commentary, Anuvṛtti, on Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī Prabhu’s Śrī Upadeśāmṛta.

These texts were published in Śrī Gauḍīya Darśan, in Volume 2, Issue 11, 10 June 1957,  Volume 2, Issue 12, 12 July 1957, and Volume 3, Issue 1, 12 August 1957. In combination with Śrīla Bhakti Vinod Ṭhākur’s Pīyūṣa-varṣiṇī-vṛtti, they were also published as a book from Śrī Chaitanya Sāraswat Maṭh by Śrīla Bhakti Sundar Govinda Dev-Goswāmī Mahārāj in 1970.

The Upadeśāmṛta of Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī is also extremely good for us.”

Śrīla Bhakti Sundar Govinda Dev-Goswāmī Mahārāj,
Affectionate Guidance

Śrī Upadeśāmṛta Verse Three

উৎসাহান্নিশ্চয়াদ্ধৈর্য্যাৎ তত্তৎকর্ম্ম-প্রবর্ত্তনাৎ ।
সঙ্গত্যাগাৎ সতোবৃত্তেঃ ষড়্ভির্ভক্তিঃ প্রসিধ্যতি ॥৩॥

utsāhān niśchayād dhairyāt tat-tat-karma-pravartanāt
saṅga-tyāgāt sato vṛtteḥ ṣaḍbhir bhaktiḥ prasidhyati [3]

bhaktiḥ–Devotion prasidhyati–is nourished ṣaḍbhiḥ–by these six [qualities]: utsāhāt–enthusiasm, niśchayāt–conviction, dhairyāt–perseverance, pravartanāt–engaging [in] tat-tat–suitable karma–activities, tyāgāt–giving up saṅga–[bad] association, [and] vṛtteḥ–[following] the conduct sataḥ–of the great souls.

Devotion is nourished by these six qualities: (1) enthusiasm, (2) conviction, (3) perseverance, (4) engaging in favourable activities, (5) giving up bad association, and (6) following the conduct of the great souls.

Bhāṣā

ভজনে উৎসাহ যার ভিতরে বাহিরে ।
সুদুর্ল্লভ কৃষ্ণভক্তি পাবে ধীরে ধীরে ॥১॥

bhajane utsāha yāra bhitare bāhire
sudurlabha kṛṣṇa-bhakti pābe dhīre dhīre [1]

[Those] yāra–who [have] utsāha–enthusiasm bhajane–for service, bhitare–within [and] bāhire–without, dhīre dhīre–gradually pābe–will attain bhakti–devotion kṛṣṇa–to Kṛṣṇa [even though it is] sudurlabha–most difficult to attain. [1]

Those who have enthusiasm for service, within and without, will gradually attain devotion to Kṛṣṇa even though it is most difficult to attain.

কৃষ্ণভক্তি-প্রতি যা’র বিশ্বাস নিশ্চয় ।
শ্রদ্ধাবান্ ভক্তিমান্ জন সেই হয় ॥২॥

kṛṣṇa-bhakti prati yāra viśvāsa niśchaya
śraddhāvān bhaktimān jana sei haya [2]

sei–Those jana–persons yāra–who [have] viśvāsa–belief [and] niśchaya–conviction prati–in bhakti–devotion kṛṣṇa–to Kṛṣṇa haya–are śraddhāvān–faithful [and] bhaktimān–devoted. [2]

Those who have belief and conviction in devotion to Kṛṣṇa are certainly faithful and devoted.

কৃষ্ণসেবা না পাইয়া ধীরভাবে যেই ।
ভক্তির সাধন করে, ভক্তিমান্ সেই ॥৩॥

kṛṣṇa-sevā nā pāiyā dhīra-bhāve yei
bhaktira sādhana kare bhaktimān sei [3]

sei–Those yei–who kare–engage in bhaktira–devotional sādhana–practice dhīra-bhāve–with perseverence [despite] pāiyā nā–having not attained kṛṣṇa–Kṛṣṇa’s sevā–service [are] bhaktimān–devoted. [3]

Those who engage in devotional practice with perseverance despite having not attained Kṛṣṇa’s service have devotion.

যাহাতে কৃষ্ণের সেবা, কৃষ্ণের সন্তোষ ।
সেই কর্ম্মে ব্রতী সদা, না করয়ে রোষ ॥৪॥

yāhāte kṛṣṇera sevā kṛṣṇera santoṣa
sei karme vratī sadā nā karaye roṣa [4]

[They are] sadā–always vratī–engaged karme–in activities sei yāhāte–in which [there is] sevā–service kṛṣṇera–to Kṛṣṇa [and] santoṣa–satisfaction kṛṣṇera–for Kṛṣṇa, [and] roṣa karaye nā–they do not become angry. [4]

They always engage in activities by which Kṛṣṇa is served and satisfied, and they never become angry.

কৃষ্ণের অভক্ত-জনসঙ্গ পরিহরি’ ।
ভক্তিমান্ ভক্তসঙ্গে সদা ভজে হরি ॥৫॥

kṛṣṇera abhakta-jana-saṅga parihari’
bhaktimān bhakta-saṅge sadā bhaje hari [5]

[Those who are] bhaktimān–devoted parihari’–leave saṅga–the association jana–of persons [who are] abhakta–non-devotees kṛṣṇera–of Kṛṣṇa, [and] sadā–always bhaje–serve hari–the Lord saṅge–in the association bhakta–of the devotees. [5]

Those who have devotion leave the association of persons who are not devotees of Kṛṣṇa and always serve the Lord in the association of the devotees.

কৃষ্ণভক্ত যাহা করে, তদনুসরণে ।
ভক্তিমান্ আচরয় জীবনে মরণে ॥৬॥

kṛṣṇa-bhakta yāhā kare tad anusaraṇe
bhaktimān ācharaya jīvane maraṇe [6]

[Those who are] bhaktimān–devoted ācharaya–act anusaraṇe–in accordance [with]  tad–that yāhā–which bhakta–the devotees kṛṣṇa–of Kṛṣṇa kare–do, jīvane–in life [and] maraṇe–in death. [6]

Those who have devotion follow what the devotees of Kṛṣṇa do, in life and in death.

এই ছয় জন হয় ভক্তি-অধিকারী ।
বিশ্বের মঙ্গল করে ভক্তি পরচারি’ ॥৭॥

ei chaya jana haya bhakti-adhikārī
viśvera maṅgala kare bhakti parachāri’ [7]

ei–These chaya–six [types of] jana–people haya–are adhikārī–qualified bhakti–for devotion, [and] maṅgala kare–they uplift viśvera–the world parachāri’–by propagating bhakti–devotion. [7]

These six types of people are qualified for devotion, and they uplift the world by propagating devotion.

Anuvṛtti

Remaining indifferent to all practices, principles, and topics of interest that exist related to the pursuits of jñān, karma, and anyābhilāṣ, and engaging exclusively in the practice of devotion is utsāha.

yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṁ tasyāṁ jāgarti saṁyamī
yasyāṁ jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato muneḥ
(Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā: 2.69)

[“Those who have full self-control are awake in that which is night for all beings, and all beings are awake in that which is night for the sages who see.”]

“Devotion to the Lord is the soul’s one and only aim of life.” This is niśchaya. “Conviction in the three paths of jñān, karma, or anyābhilāṣ cannot produce any good; the soul should follow the path of devotion exclusively.” Such firm conception is niśchaya.

“The three paths of jñān, karma, or anyābhilāṣ make the soul fickle. The path of devotion is the only steady path for the pure soul.” Such firm faith is dhairya. “The path of devotion will never cause anyone harm.” Such conception is dhairya.

ye ’nye ’ravindākṣa vimukta-māninas
tvayy asta-bhāvād aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ
āruhya kṛchchhreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ
patanty adho ’nādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ
tathā na te mādhava tāvakāḥ kvachid
bhraśyanti mārgāt tvayi baddha-sauhṛdāḥ
(Śrīmad Bhāgavatam: 10.2.32–3)

[“O lotus-eyed Lord, those who consider themselves liberated but are devoid of devotion to You have impure intelligence. They ascend to the supreme abode with great difficulty but then fall down from there because they have no regard for Your feet. Your devotees, however, O Lord, who are bound by affection for You, never fall from the path.”]

khaṇḍa khaṇḍa hai’ deha yāya yadi prāṇa
tabu āmi vadane nā chhāḍi hari-nāma
(Śrī Chaitanya-Bhāgavat: Ādi-khaṇḍa, 16.94)

[“Even if this body is cut into pieces and I breathe my last, I will never stop chanting the Lord’s Name.”]

Understanding that all the duties prescribed for jñānīs and karmīs are distinct from service to Kṛṣṇa, remaining indifferent to them, and engaging in the practices of devotion is tat-tat-karma-pravartana. Performing the activities that are appropriate for one’s own stage within the three stages of devotees and not making a show of performing the activities meant for a stage different from the one in which one is situated is tat-tat-karma-pravartana.

Understanding that jñānīs, karmīs, and anyābhilāṣīs are all materialistic fools and avoiding their association is saṅga-tyāga. Only the association of devotees is desirable. Jñānīs and other nondevotees do not honour those who associate with devotees. So, let all one’s efforts to obtain honour from karmīs and jñānīs be gone. One should not maintain any connection with such persons whatsoever.

In jñānīs, the conditioned ego is predominant, and in their endeavour to overcome their conditioning, they engage in transitory practices. The thirst of karmīs is similarly only temporary, and there is no need to even mention the anyābhilāṣīs in this regard. We should avoid these three types of transitory egotists and follow the conduct of the devoted sādhus who always take shelter in the Name. The pursuits of karma, jñān, and anyābhilāṣ are never steps on the path of devotion.

jñāna-vairāgyādi bhaktira kabhu nahe aṅga
(Śrī Chaitanya-charitāmṛta: Madhya-līlā, 22.141)

[“Knowledge and renunciation are never limbs of devotion.”]

These three paths, separate from devotion, are unreal, that is, non-eternal.

yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiñchanā
sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ
harāv abhaktasya kuto mahad-guṇā
manorathenāsati dhāvato bahiḥ
(Śrīmad Bhāgavatam: 5.18.12)

[“All the gods and all virtues reside in the bodies of those who have unconditional devotion to the Lord. Where are the virtues of non-devotees, riding the chariot of the mind, who always wander in search of external ends”]

Thus, only the practice of devotion is sādhu-vṛtti, and following the sādhus is the path of devotion.

Enthusiasm for Kṛṣṇa’s service, conviction in Kṛṣṇa’s service, steadiness in Kṛṣṇa’s service, engaging in activities for the purpose of Kṛṣṇa’s service, avoiding the association of nondevotees of Kṛṣṇa, and following the devotees of Kṛṣṇa—devotion develops by engaging in these six practices.

Reference

Read Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s commentary on Śrī Upadeśāmṛta: verses one and two.

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