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Prakrita-rasa-shata-dushani (Part 1)

Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s definitive treatise.

Prākṛta-rasa-śata-dūṣaṇī

One Hundred Refutations of Mundane Rasa

Part One

প্রাকৃত-চেষ্টাতে ভাই কভু রস হয় না
জড়ীয় প্রাকৃতরস শুদ্ধভক্ত গায় না ॥১॥

prākṛta-cheṣṭāte bhāi kabhu rasa haya nā
jaḍīya prākṛta-rasa śuddha-bhakta gāya nā [1]

bhāi–O brother! rasa–Rasa kabhu nā–never haya–arises [from] prākṛta–material cheṣṭāte–endeavours. śuddha–Pure bhakta–devotees gāya nā–do not sing [about] jaḍīya–mundane prākṛta–material rasa–rasa. [1]

O brother! Rasa never arises from material endeavours. Pure devotees do not sing about mundane material rasa.

প্রাকৃতরসের শিক্ষা-ভিক্ষা শিষ্যে চায় না
রতি বিনা যেই রস তাহা গুরু দেয় না ॥২॥

prākṛta-rasera śikṣā-bhikṣā śiṣye chāya nā
rati vinā yei rasa tāhā guru deya nā [2]

śiṣye–A disciple chāya nā–does not desire bhikṣā–alms [in the form] śikṣā–of teachings [about] prākṛta–mundane rasera–rasa. guru–A Guru deya nā–does not give tāhā–such rasa–rasa yei–that [is] vinā–devoid of rati–rati. [2]

A disciple does not desire alms in the form of teachings about mundane rasa. A Guru does not give rasa that is devoid of rati.

নাম রস দুই বস্তু ভক্ত কভু জানে না
নাম রসে ভেদ আছে ভক্ত কভু বলে না ॥৩॥

nāma rasa dui vastu bhakta kabhu jāne nā
nāma rase bheda āchhe bhakta kabhu bale nā [3]

bhakta–A devotee kabhu nā–never jāne–considers nāma–the Name [and] rasa–rasa dui–two [different] vastu–things. bhakta–A devotee kabhu nā–never bale–says āchhe–there is bheda–a difference [between] nāma–the Name [and] rase–rasa. [3]

A devotee never considers the Name and rasa two different things. A devotee never says there is a difference between the Name and rasa.

অহং-মম-ভাবসত্ত্বে নাম কভু হয় না
ভোগ-বুদ্ধি না ছাড়িলে অপ্রাকৃত হয় না ॥৪॥

ahaṁ-mama-bhāva-sattve nāma kabhu haya nā
bhoga-buddhi nā chhāḍile aprākṛta haya nā [4]

nāma–The Name kabhu nā–never haya–manifests [to those] sattve–in the condition bhāva–of thought ahaṁ–of ‘I’ [and] mama–‘mine’. chhāḍile nā–If one does not give up buddhi–the mentality bhoga–of enjoying, aprākṛta–transcendence (‘supramundanity’) haya nā–does not manifest. [4]

The Name never manifests to those who have the mentality of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. If one does not give up the enjoying mentality, transcendence does not manifest.

প্রাকৃত জড়ের ভোগে কৃষ্ণসেবা হয় না
জড়বস্তু কোনও কালে অপ্রাকৃত হয় না ॥৫॥

prākṛta jaḍera bhoge kṛṣṇa-sevā haya nā
jaḍa-vastu konao kāle aprākṛta haya nā [5]

sevā–Service kṛṣṇa–to Kṛṣṇa haya nā–does not occur bhoge–by enjoyment [of] prākṛta–mundane jaḍera–matter, [and] jaḍa–material vastu–objects haya nā–do not become aprākṛta–supramundane [at] konao–any kāle–time. [5]

Kṛṣṇa is not served by mundane material enjoyment, and material objects never become supramundane.

জড়সত্ত্বা বর্ত্তমানে চিৎ কভু হয় না
জড়বস্তু চিৎ হয় ভক্তে কভু বলে না ॥৬॥

jaḍa-sattvā vartamāne chit kabhu haya nā
jaḍa-vastu chit haya bhakte kabhu bale nā [6]

chit–Spirit kabhu nā–never haya–manifests vartamāne–in the presence jaḍa–of the material sattvā–existence, [and] bhakte–a devotee kabhu nā–never bale–says jaḍa–material vastu–objects haya–become chit–spirit. [6]

Spirit never manifests in the presence of matter, and a devotee never says material objects become spiritual.

জড়ীয় বিষয়-ভোগ ভক্ত কভু করে না
জড়ভোগ কৃষ্ণসেবা কভু সম হয় না ॥৭॥

jaḍīya viṣaya-bhoga bhakta kabhu kare nā
jaḍa-bhoga kṛṣṇa-sevā kabhu sama haya nā [7]

bhakta–A devotee kabhu nā–never kare–engages in bhoga–enjoyment [of] jaḍīya–material viṣaya–objects. jaḍa–Material bhoga–enjoyment [and] sevā–service kṛṣṇa–to Kṛṣṇa haya–are kabhu nā–never sama–the same. [7]

A devotee never engages in enjoyment of material objects. Material enjoyment and service to Kṛṣṇa are never the same thing.

নিজ-ভোগ্য কামে ভক্ত প্রেম কভু বলে না
রসে ডগমগ আছ শিষ্যে গুরু বলে না ॥৮॥

nija-bhogya kāme bhakta prema kabhu bale nā
rase ḍagamaga āchha śiṣye guru bale nā [8]

bhakta–A devotee kabhu nā–never bale–says kāme–desire nija–for one’s own bhogya–enjoyment [is] prema–divine love. guru–A Guru bale nā–does not tell śiṣye–a disciple, āchha–“You are ḍagamaga–absorbed rase–in rasa.” [8]

A devotee never says desire for one’s own enjoyment is prema. A Guru does not tell a disciple, “You are absorbed in rasa.”

রসে ডগমগ আমি কভু গুরু বলে না
জড়ীয় রসের কথা শিষ্যে গুরু বলে না ॥৯॥

rase ḍagamaga āmi kabhu guru bale nā
jaḍīya rasera kathā śiṣye guru bale nā [9]

guru–A Guru kabhu nā–never bale–says, āmi–“I [am] ḍagamaga–absorbed rase–in rasa.” guru–A Guru kathā bale nā–does not discuss jaḍīya–material rasera–rasa śiṣye–with a disciple. [9]

A Guru never says, “I am absorbed in rasa.” A Guru does not discuss material rasa with a disciple.

জড়রস-গানে কভু শ্রেয়ঃ কেহ লভে না
কৃষ্ণকে প্রাকৃত বলি’ ভক্ত কভু গায় না ॥১০॥

jaḍa-rasa-gāne kabhu śreyaḥ keha labhe nā
kṛṣṇake prākṛta bali’ bhakta kabhu gāya nā [10]

keha nā–No one kabhu–ever labhe–attains śreyaḥ–good fortune gāne–by singing [about] jaḍa–material rasa–rasa. bhakta–A devotee kabhu nā–never gāya–sings bali’–considering kṛṣṇake–Kṛṣṇa prākṛta–mundane. [10]

No one ever attains good fortune by singing about material rasa. A devotee never sings of Kṛṣṇa being mundane.

নামকে প্রাকৃত বলি’ কৃষ্ণে জড় জানে না
কৃষ্ণনামরসে ভেদ শুদ্ধভক্ত মানে না ॥১১॥

nāmake prākṛta bali’ kṛṣṇe jaḍa jāne nā
kṛṣṇa-nāma-rase bheda śuddha-bhakta māne nā [11]

śuddha–A pure bhakta–devotee jāne nā–does not think kṛṣṇe–Kṛṣṇa [is] jaḍa–material [or] bali’–say nāmake–the Name [is] prākṛta–mundane. māne nā–They do not recognise bheda–a distinction rase–between rasa, nāma–the Name, [and] kṛṣṇa–Kṛṣṇa. [11]

A pure devotee does not think Kṛṣṇa is material or say the Name is mundane. They do not recognise a distinction between rasa, the Name, and Kṛṣṇa.

নামরসে ভেদ আছে গুরু শিক্ষা দেয় না
রস লাভ করি’ শেষে সাধন ত হয় না ॥১২॥

nāma-rase bheda āchhe guru śikṣā deya nā
rasa lābha kari’ śeṣe sādhana ta haya nā [12]

guru–A Guru śikṣā deya nā–does not teach [that] āchhe–there is bheda–a distinction rase–between rasa [and] nāma–the Name, [and] ta–indeed haya nā–it is not [that] lābha kari’–one will attain rasa–rasa [and] śeṣe–afterwards [take up] sādhana–the practice. [12]

A Guru does not teach that there is a distinction between rasa and the Name, and it is not that one will attain rasa and afterwards take up sādhana.

কৃত্রিম পন্থায় নামে রসোদয় হয় না
রস হৈতে কৃষ্ণনাম বিলোমেতে হয় না ॥১৩॥

kṛtrima panthāya nāme rasodaya haya nā
rasa haite kṛṣṇa-nāma vilomete haya nā [13]

rasa–Rasa udaya haya nā–does not arise nāme–from the Name [on] kṛtrima–the false panthāya–path. nāma–The Name kṛṣṇa–of Kṛṣṇa haya nā–does not arise haite–from rasa–rasa vilomete–in reverse order. [13]

Rasa does not arise from the Name on the false path. The Name of Kṛṣṇa does not in reverse order arise from rasa.

রস হৈতে রতি শ্রদ্ধা কখনই হয় না
শ্রদ্ধা হৈতে রতি ছাড়া ভাগবত গায় না ॥১৪॥

rasa haite rati śraddhā kakhanai haya nā
śraddhā haite rati chhāḍā bhāgavata gāya nā [14]

rati–Rati [and] śraddhā–faith kakhanai haya nā–never ever arise haite–from rasa–rasa. bhāgavata–A devotee gāya nā–does not sing [of anything] chhāḍā–other than rati–rati [that has arisen] haite–from śraddhā–faith. [14]

Rati and śraddhā never ever arise from rasa. A devotee does not sing of anything other than rati that has arisen from śraddhā.

রতিযুক্ত রস ছাড়া শুদ্ধভক্ত বলে না
সাধনেতে রতি রস গুরু কভু বলে না ॥১৫॥

rati-yukta rasa chhāḍā śuddha-bhakta bale nā
sādhanete rati rasa guru kabhu bale nā [15]

śuddha–A pure bhakta–devotee bale nā–does not speak [of anything] chhāḍā–other than rasa–rasa yukta–based rati–on rati. guru–A Guru kabhu nā–never bale–says [there is] rati–rati [and] rasa–rasa sādhanete–in the [stage of] practice. [15]

A pure devotee does not speak of anything other than rasa based on rati. A Guru never says there is rati and rasa in the stage of sādhana.

ভাবকালে যে অবস্থা সাধনাগ্রে বলে না
বৈধী শ্রদ্ধা সাধনেতে রাগানুগা হয় না ॥১৬॥

bhāva-kāle ye avasthā sādhanāgre bale nā
vaidhī śraddhā sādhanete rāgānugā haya nā [16]

bale nā–A Guru does not say ye avasthā–the conditions kāle–at the time bhāva–of bhāva-bhakti [arises] āgre–prior sādhana–to sādhana-bhakti. rāgānugā–Rāgānugā-bhakti haya nā–does not develop sādhanete–from śraddhā–faith vaidhī–based on [scriptural] regulations. [16]

A Guru does not say that the state reached in the stage of bhāva-bhakti arises prior to the stage of sādhana. Rāgānugā-bhakti does not develop from faith based on scriptural regulations.

ভাবের অঙ্কুর হলে বিধি আর থাকে না
রাগানুগা শ্রদ্ধা মাত্রে জাতরতি হয় না ॥১৭॥

bhāvera aṅkura hale vidhi āra thāke nā
rāgānugā śraddhā mātre jāta-rati haya nā [17]

[When] aṅkura–the sprout bhāvera–of bhāva hale–arsies, vidhi–regulations āra thāke nā–no longer remain. jāta–Developed rati–rati haya nā–does not arise mātre–only by śraddhā–faith rāgānugā–in rāgānugā-bhakti. [17]

When the sproat of bhāva arises, regulations withdraw. Developed rati does not arise only by faith in rāgānugā-bhakti.

অজাতরতিকে কভু ভাবলব্ধ বলে না
রাগানুগ সাধকেরে জাতভাব বলে না ॥১৮॥

ajāta-ratike kabhu bhāva-labdha bale nā
rāgānuga sādhakere jāta-bhāva bale nā [18]

rāgānuga–A rāgānuga-bhakta kabhu nā–never bale–says [that] ajāta–undeveloped ratike–rati [is] labdha–realised bhāva–bhāva, [and they] bale nā–do not say [that] sādhakere–practioners [have] jāta–developed bhāva–bhāva. [18]

A rāgānuga-bhakta never says that undeveloped rati is realised bhāva, and they do not say that sādhakas have developed bhāva.

রাগানুগ সাধকেরে লব্ধরস বলে না
রাগানুগা সাধ্যভাব রতি ছাড়া হয় না ॥১৯॥

rāgānuga sādhakere labdha-rasa bale nā
rāgānugā sādhya-bhāva rati chhāḍā haya nā [19]

rāgānuga–A rāgānuga-bhakta bale nā–does not say [that] sādhakere–practitioners [have] labdha–attained rasa–rasa. sādhya–The perfected bhāva–bhāva rāgānugā–of rāgānugā-bhakti haya nā–does not arise chhāḍā–without rati–rati. [19]

A rāgānuga-bhakta does not say that sādhakas have attained rasa. The perfected bhāva of rāgānugā-bhakti does not arise without rati.

ভাবাঙ্কুর-সমাগমে বৈধী-ভক্তি থাকে না
রুচিকে রতির সহ কভু এক জানে না ॥২০॥

bhāvāṅkura-samāgame vaidhī-bhakti thāke nā
ruchike ratira saha kabhu eka jāne nā [20]

samāgame–With the arrival aṅkura–of the sproat bhāva–of bhāva, vaidhī–regulated bhakti–devotion thāke nā–does not remain. [A rāgānuga-bhakta] kabhu nā–never jāne–thinks ruchike–ruchi [is] eka–one saha–with ratira–rati. [20]

With the arrival of the sproat of bhāva, vaidhī-bhakti withdraws. A rāgānuga-bhakta never thinks ruchi and rati are one and the same.

[To be continued …]

Glossary

abhidheya: the means to the end; the practice of devotion, and mainly, the stage of sādhana-bhakti.

anarthas: misconceptions, desires for the mundane, offences, and weaknesses of heart.

anartha-nivṛtti: the gradual cessation of anarthas and development of niṣṭhā.

aprākṛta: lit. ‘not mundane’; supramundane, divine, spiritual; something part of, or related to, the highest plane of spiritual existence, the land of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s Pastimes, which at times resembles the mundane world but is nevertheless ‘not mundane’.

aparādha: offence; an action that is contrary to the rules, principles, or mood of devotion to the Lord; an action that displeases the Lord; substandard worship.

āsakti: attachment; natural ruchi for the Lord and His service.

bhajana-kriyā: engaging in practices of devotion, such as hearing, chanting, and serving, according to the instructions of Śrī Guru and the sādhus.

bhakti: service to the Supreme Lord rendered solelym unconditionally, and constantly for His pleasure.

bhāva (bhāva-bhakti): devotion composed of the Lord’s spiritual energy (the samvit- and hlādinī-śaktis) that resembles a ray of the sun of prema-bhakti and melts the heart with ruchi; the second of the three stages of bhakti, following sādhana-bhakti and preceding prema-bhakti.

guru: lit. ‘heavy’; master, teacher; one who dispels darkness; the form the Supreme Lord assumes to distribute divine knowledge.

krama-patha: the gradual path; the path given by Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī in Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (Pūrva-vibhāga, 4.15–6) for the development of prema-bhakti which contains nine general stages: śraddhā, sādhu-saṅga, bhajana-kriyā, anartha-nivṛtti, niṣṭhā, ruchi, āsakti, bhāva, and finally prema. Krama-patha also in some cases refers to the gradual process by which the Lord reveals Himself sequentially as His nāma, rūpa, guṇa, and then līlā—His Name, then His form, then His qualities, and finally His Pastimes.

nāma: lit. ‘name’; the Name of the Supreme Lord; the personal form of the Lord as His Name, nondifferent from the Lord Himself.

niṣṭhā: constant engagement in the service of the Lord free from anarthas.

prakṛti: material energy.

prākṛta: material, made of or based on material energy.

prayojan: the goal; the highest attainment: Śrī Kṛṣṇa-prema.

prema (prema-bhakti): divine love; extremely intense bhāva that completely melts the heart and produces intense feelings of loving possessiveness for the Lord.

rāga: intense natural immersion in the object of one’s desire, one’s worshippable master.

rāgānuga: a practitioner of rāgānugā-bhakti.

rāgānugā (rāgānugā-bhakti): devotion that follows the devotion of the residents of Vraja, whose devotion is based purely on rāga.

rasa: the inconceivable, wonderful taste within service to the Lord found in the hearts of pure devotees; rati (sthāyī-bhāva) brought into the heart by hearing, chanting, and other practices of devotion and nourished by vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas, and vyabhichārī-bhāvas.

rasika: a devotee in the stage of bhāva-bhakti or prema-bhakti who has genuine experience of rasa.

rati: a synonym for bhāva and sthāyī-bhāva.

ruchi: genuine taste for the Lord and His service that arises on the basis of niṣṭhā.

Rūpa (Śrī): Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī, the author Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu and the foremost authority on the science of rasa.

sādhaka: practitioner, esp. one engaged in the practice of sādhana-bhakti.

sādhana (sādhana-bhakti): engagement of the senses in devotional practices aimed at uncovering the eternal nature of the soul; the first of the three stages of bhakti, followed by bhāva-bhakti and prema-bhakti. (Brs: 1.2.2)

sādhu: one who is adherent to truth, that is, devoted to the Lord and His service.

sādhu-saṅga: association with and service to sādhus; taking shelter at the feet of Śrī Guru and being initiated and trained by Śrī Guru in service to the Lord and all that is dear to Him.

sahajiyāism: imitationism; imitating the behaviour of those who have rati and taste rasa and/or wrongly believing that one has rati and tastes rasa when in fact one does not.

sambandha-jñān: knowledge of the Supreme Lord, His energies, and their relationships; the foundation of the practice of devotion.

siddhānta: proper conclusions and conceptions; the essence of the teachings of the sādhus and scriptures.

śiṣya: a disciple, one who accepts discipline.

śraddhā: faith in revealed truth produced by association with sādhus; faith that by serving Kṛṣṇa all duties and desires are fulfilled.

sthāyī-bhāva: foundational rati for Kṛṣṇa, which has any one of five primary forms: śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and madhura [adoration, servitude, friendship, affectionate guardianship, and paramour love].

vaidhī: based on the regulations of the scriptures.

vaidhī-bhakti: sādhana-bhakti based on the regulations of the scriptures (rather than on rāga).

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