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The Six Defects

Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s commentary on the second verse of Śrī Upadeśāmṛta.

The following is a translation of Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s poetic Bengali translation, Bhāṣā, and Bengali prose commentary, Anuvṛtti, on Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī Prabhu’s Śrī Upadeśāmṛta.

These texts were published in Śrī Gauḍīya Darśan, in Volume 2, Issue 11, 10 June 1957,  Volume 2, Issue 12, 12 July 1957, and Volume 3, Issue 1, 12 August 1957. In combination with Śrīla Bhakti Vinod Ṭhākur’s Pīyūṣa-varṣiṇī-vṛtti, they were also published as a book from Śrī Chaitanya Sāraswat Maṭh by Śrīla Bhakti Sundar Govinda Dev-Goswāmī Mahārāj in 1970.

The Upadeśāmṛta of Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī is also extremely good for us.”

Śrīla Bhakti Sundar Govinda Dev-Goswāmī Mahārāj,
Affectionate Guidance

Śrī Upadeśāmṛta Verse Two

অত্যহারঃ প্রয়াসশ্চ প্রজল্পো নিয়মাগ্রহঃ ।
জনসঙ্গশ্চ লৌল্যঞ্চ ষড়্ভির্ভক্তির্বিনশ্যতি ॥২॥

atyāhāraḥ prayāsaś cha prajalpo niyamāgrahaḥ
jana-saṅgaś cha laulyañ cha ṣaḍbhir bhaktir vinaśyati [2]

bhaktiḥ–Devotion vinaśyati–is destroyed ṣaḍbhiḥ–by these six [faults]: atyāhāraḥ–over-accumulation, prayāsaḥ–materialistic endeavours, prajalpaḥ–unnecessary talk, agrahaḥ–disregarding or being wrongly attached niyama–to the rules, saṅgaḥ–association jana–with nondevotees, cha–and laulyaḥ–fickle-mindedness.

Devotion is destroyed by these six defects: (1) over-accumulation; (2) materialistic endeavour; (3) unnecessary talk; (4) rejecting the rules meant for one’s self and following the rules meant for others; (5) associating with nondevotees; and (6) fickle-mindedness.

Bhāṣā

অত্যন্ত সংগ্রহে যার সদা চিত্ত ধায় ।
‘অত্যাহারী’ ভক্তিহীন সেই সংজ্ঞা পায় ॥১॥

atyanta saṁgrahe yāra sadā chitta dhāya
‘atyāhārī’ bhakti-hīna sei saṁjñā pāya [1]

sei–Those yāra–whose chitta–minds sadā–always dhāya–run [after] atyanta–excessive saṅgrahe–accumulation saṁjñā pāya–become known as ‘atyāhārī’–hoarders hīna–devoid bhakti–of devotion. [1]

Those whose minds always run after excessive accumulation become known as hoarders devoid of devotion.

প্রাকৃত বস্তুর আশে ভোগে যার মন ।
‘প্রয়াসী’ তাহার নাম ভক্তিহীন জন ॥২॥

prākṛta vastura āśe bhoge yāra mana
‘prayāsī’ tāhāra nāma bhakti-hīna jana [2]

‘prayāsī’–‘Over-endeavourer’ [is] nāma–the name tāhāra–for those jana–persons hīna–devoid bhakti–of devotion yāra–whose mana–minds āśe–desire bhoge–enjoyment [of] prākṛta–material vastura–objects. [2]

Those whose minds desire to enjoy material objects are known asover-endeavourers devoid of devotion.

কৃষ্ণকথা ছাড়ি’ জিহ্বা আন কথা কহে ।
‘প্রজল্পী’ তাহার নাম, বৃথা বাক্য বহে ॥৩॥

kṛṣṇa-kathā chhāḍi’ jihvā āna kathā kahe
‘prajalpī’ tāhāra nāma vṛthā vākya vahe [3]

‘prajalpī’–‘Prattler‘ [is] nāma–the name tāhāra–for those [who] chhāḍi’–avoid kathā–discussion kṛṣṇa–of Kṛṣṇa [and] kahe–speak [with their] jihvā–tongues [about] āna–other kathā–subjects; vākya vahe–they speak vṛthā–uselessly. [3]

Those whose tongues avoid discussing Kṛṣṇa and speak about other subjects are known as prattlers who speak gibberish.

ভজনতে উদাসীন কর্ম্মেতে প্রবীণ ।
বহ্বারম্ভী সে ‘নিয়মাগ্রহী’ অতি দীন ॥৪॥

bhajanete udāsīna karmete pravīṇa
bahvārambhī se ‘niyamāgrahī’ ati dīna [4]

se bahvārambhī–Exhibitionists [who are] udāsīna–indifferent bhajanete–to service [and] pravīṇa–expert karmete–in worldly activities [are] ‘niyama-agrahī’–transgressors of the rules [and] ati–extremely dīna–low. [4]

Exhibitionists who are indifferent to service and expert in material affairs are transgressors of the rules and extremely low.

কৃষ্ণভক্তসঙ্গ বিনা অন্য সঙ্গে রত ।
‘জনসঙ্গী’ কুবিষয়-বিলাসে বিব্রত ॥৫॥

kṛṣṇa-bhakta-saṅga vinā anya-saṅge rata
‘jana-saṅgī’ kuviṣaya-vilāse vivrata [5]

[Those who remain] vinā–apart [from] saṅga–the association kṛṣṇa–of Kṛṣṇa’s bhakta–devotees [and are] rata–attached saṅge–to the association anya–of others [are] ‘jana-saṅgī’–fraternisers vivrata–intent [upon] kuviṣaya–indecent material vilāse–enjoyment. [5]

Those who avoid the association of Kṛṣṇa’s devotees and associate with others are fraternisers intent upon indecent material enjoyment.

নানাস্থানে ভ্রমে যেই নিজ স্বার্থ তরে ।
‘লৌল্যপর’ ভক্তিহীন সংজ্ঞা দেয় নরে ॥৬॥

nānā-sthāne bhrame yei nija svārtha tare
‘laulya-para’ bhakti-hīna saṁjñā deya nare [6]

nare–People saṁjñā deya–designate [those] yei–who bhrame–wander [in] nānā–various sthāne–places tare–for [their] nija– own svārtha–purpose [as] laulya-para–fickle [and] hīna–devoid bhakti–of devotion. [6]

People designate those who wander here and there for their own purpose as fickle and devoid of devotion.

এই ছয় নহে কভু ভক্তি-অধিকারী ।
ভক্তিহীন লক্ষ্যভষ্ট বিষয়ী সংসারী ॥৭॥

ei chhaya nahe kabhu bhakti-adhikārī
bhakti-hīna lakṣya-bhraṣṭa viṣayī saṁsārī [7]

ei–These chhaya–six [types of people are] kabhu nahe–never adhikārī–qualified bhakti–for devotion. [They are] saṁsārī–worldly, viṣayī–materialistic, lakṣya-bhraṣṭa–misdirected, [and] hīna–devoid bhakti–of devotion. [7]

These six types of people are never qualified for devotion. They are worldly, materialistic, misdirected, and devoid of devotion.

Anuvṛtti

The jñānīs’ excessive accumulation of knowledge, the karmīs’ accumulation of results, and the anyābhilāṣīs’ excessive accumulation are called atyāhāra. The jñānīs’ regulations, the karmīs’ austerities, rites, and so on, and the anyābhilāṣīs’ pursuit of women, children, wealth, and so on are called prayāsa. The jñānīs’ learning for the purpose of wrangling over scripture, the karmīs’ fondness for pious activities, and the anyābhilāṣīs’ talk of sense gratification are called prajalpa. Eagerness to follow regulations from the scriptures on jñān meant for the attainment of liberation, attachment to the regulations of the ritualistic scriptures meant for the attainment of enjoyment the urine in this world, and establishing, like utilitarians, adherence to regulations suited to one’s own situation meant for the attainment of temporary happiness are called niyamāgraha. Indifference to regulations meant for the attainment of devotion, considering one’s own wayward behaviour to be love for Kṛṣṇa, and holding one’s own condemnable condition in high regard are also niyamāgraha.

śruti-smṛti-purāṇādi-pañcharātra-vidhiṁ vinā
aikāntikī harer bhaktir utpātāyaiva kalpate
(Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu: Pūrva-vibhāga, 2.99)

[“Resolute devotion to the Lord devoid of the guidance given in the Śrutis, Smṛtis, Purāṇas, and Pañcharātras produces only misfortune.”]

Śrī Kalyāṇa-kalpa-taru (Upadeśa: 17–19):

mana tore bali e vāratā
apakka vayase hāya vañchita vañchaka pāya
vikāile nija-svatantratā

O mind, I tell you this message: At an unripe age, alas, you were cheated by cheaters, and you sold them your independence.

sampradāye doṣa-buddhi jāni’ tumi ātma-śuddhi
karibāre ha-ile sāvadhāna
na nile tilaka-mālā tyajile dīkṣāra jvālā
nije kaile navīna-vidhāna [2]

Considering the tradition to be faulty, you have become concerned with purifying yourself. You do not wear tilak or a mālā. You have given up the ‘pain’ of initiation and made a new method for yourself.

pūrva-mate tāli diyā nija-mata prachāriyā
nije avatāra buddhi dhari’
vratāchāra nā mānile pūrva-patha jale dile
mahājane bhrama dṛṣṭi kari’ [3]

Applauding your previous ideas, you have preached your own conception and considered yourself an Avatār. You have not observed rites or the codes of conduct. Seeing mistakes in the great souls, you have thrown the previous path in the water.

pho̐ṭā dīkṣā mālā dhari’ dhūrta kare suchāturi
tāi tāhe tomāra virāga
mahājana-pathe doṣa dekhiyā tomāra roṣa
patha prati chhāḍa anurāga [4]

Because scoundrels accept tilak, initiation, and a mālā and behave deceitfully, you have disdain for these things. Seeing faults in the path of the great souls, you have become angry and given up attachment to it.

ekhana dekhaha bhāi svarṇa chhāḍi’ laile chhāi
ihakāla parakāla yāya
kapaṭa balila sabe bhakati vā pele kabe
dehānte vā ki habe upāya [5]

Now look, brother! If you reject gold and collect ashes, your present and future will be ruined. You say everyone is deceitful, but when will you attain devotion? At death, what will be your means of deliverance?

ki ara baliba tore mana
mukhe bala prema prema vastutaḥ tyajiyā hema
śūnya-granthi añchale bandhana [1]

O mind, what more shall I say to you? You say aloud, “Prema prema”, but in reality you reject gold and tie an empty knot in your cloth (you think and show that you have prema but in fact you do not).

abhyāsiyā aśru-pāta lampha jhampha akasmāt
mūrchchha-prāya thākaha paḍiyā
e loka vañchite raṅga prachāriyā asat-saṅga
kāminī-kāñchana labha giyā [2]

You practise shedding tears, jumping about, and fainting on cue. Performing this act to cheat people, you acquire women, wealth, and bad association.

premera sādhana bhakti tāte naila ānurakti’
śuddha prema kemane milibe?
daśa-aparādha tyaji’ nirantara nāma bhaji’
kṛpa hale suprema pāibe [3]

O mind, the means to attain divine love is devotion. If you have no attachment to that, how will you attain pure divine love? When you avoid the ten offences, constantly serve the Name, and receive mercy, then you will attain true divine love.

na mānile subhajana sādhu-saṅge saṅkīrtana
na karile nirjane smaraṇa
nā uṭhiyā vṛkṣopari ṭānāṭāni phala dhari’
duṣṭa-phala karile arjana [4]

If you do not follow the proper practice—engaging in chanting in the association of the sādhus—and do not remember the Lord while in solitude—if you do not climb the tree and pick its fruits—then you will only get rotten fruit.

akaitava kṛṣṇa-prema yena suvimala hema
ei phala nṛloke durlabha
kaitave vañchanā mātra hao āge yogya-pātra
tabe prema hāibe sulabha [5]

Genuine divine love for Kṛṣṇa, like pure gold, is very rarely found in human society. By deceiving others, you simply cheat yourself. First become a fit recipient. Then you will easily attain divine love for Kṛṣṇa.

kāme preme dekha bhāi lakṣaṇete bheda nāi
tabu kāma prema nāhi haya
tumi ta varile kāma mithyā tāhe prema-nāma
āropile kise śubha haya [6]

Brother, look! There is no difference between the appearances of lust and love, yet lust is never love. If you choose lust and falsely consider it love, how will you attain good fortune?

kena mana kāmere nāchāo prema-prāya ?
charma-māṁsa-maya kāma jaḍa-sukha avirāma
jaḍa-viṣayete sadā dhāya [1]

O mind, why does lust make you dance as though you have divine love? Lust—constant desire for material happiness—is based on flesh and blood. Under its influence, you constantly run after material objects.

jīvera svarūpa dharma chit-svarūpe prema-marma
tāhāra viṣaya mātra hari
kāma-āvaraṇe hāya prema ebe supta-prāya
prema jāgāo kāma dūra kari’ [2]

The soul’s natural function, in its spiritual form, is in essence divine love, and its sole object is the Lord. Alas! Covered by lust, that love is now nearly asleep. So, awaken that love and drive lust away!

śraddhā haite sādhu-saṅge bhajanera kriyā raṅge
niṣṭha-ruchi-āsakti udaya
āsakti ha-ite bhāva tāhe prema prādurbhāva
ei krame prema upajaya [3]

From faith, association with sādhus, and the practice of devotion, constancy, taste, and attachment develop. From attachment, ecstasy and divine love manifest. Divine love develops in these stages.

ihāte yatana yāra sei pāya prema-sāra
krama-tyāge prema nāhi jāge
e krama sādhane bhaya kena kara durāśaya
kāme prema kabhu nāhi lāge [4]

Those who adhere to these stages attain true divine love; divine love does not develop by rejecting them. O mind, why do you fear these stages of practice and behave wickedly? Divine love never manifests from lust.

nāṭakābhinaya prāya sa-kapaṭa prema bhāya
tāhe mātra indriya-santoṣa
indriya-toṣaṇa chhāra sadā kara parihāra
chhāḍa bhāi aparādha-doṣa [5]

Like the make-believe of an actor, your deceitful show of divine love is simply gross sense gratification. Give it up forever! Brother, give up your sins and offences.”

The association of impersonalist jñānīs, seekers of liberation, the association of karmīs who seek the fruits of their actions, and the association of anyābhilāṣīs who seek immediate sense gratification is called jana-saṅga. When we attain the association of the souls surrendered to the Lord, the association of these materialists will leave us of its own accord. Desires for liberation and enjoyment, and all inclinations to pursue worldly sense pleasure are called laulya. Atyāhāra, prayāsa, prajalpa, niyamāgraha, jana-saṅga, and laulya—our propensity for submission to Kṛṣṇa is lost because of these six propensities. In the illusory environment, we develop the desire to become a master, and even our ability to understand that devotion to Kṛṣṇa is supreme is destroyed. When we use these six propensities for Kṛṣṇa, we develop devotion, but otherwise, when we apply them to things other than Kṛṣṇa, we fall from the path of devotion.

Reference

Read Śrīla Bhakti Siddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākur’s commentary on Śrī Upadeśāmṛta verse one.

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